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My research about social annotation enabling collaborative, open, and equitable learning

Kalir, J. (2020). Remarking on annotation: An annotated reading list about and with annotation. Commonplace.

Abstract: From advances in natural language processing to online learning, and from studies of book culture to commentary about journalism and religious texts, the entries on this reading list represent various disciplines, traditions, and perspectives. The entries were selected for a variety of reasons; some provide useful background information, while others are provocative and usefully push forward new ideas about what counts as annotation and why such notes are consequential. Some entries are articles, whereas others are projects related to—or that make extensive use of—annotation. In total, this reading list features 19 entries about annotation.
Kalir, J. (in press). “Annotation is first draft thinking”: Educators’ marginal notes as brave writing. English Journal.

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Abstract: The author argues for annotation as a form of brave writing when it is social, public, vulnerable, and critical.
Kalir, J. (2020). Social annotation enabling collaboration for open learning. Distance Education, 41(2), 245-260.

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Abstract: Collaboration is a conceptually ambiguous and understudied aspect of open education. Given inconsistent discussion about collaboration in the open education literature, this article suggests that collaboration be defined and studied as a distinct OEP. A theoretical stance from the discipline of computer-supported collaborative learning helps conceptualize collaboration as processes of intersubjective meaning-making. Social annotation is then presented as a genre of learning technology that can productively enable group collaboration and shared meaning-making. After introducing an open learning project utilizing social annotation for group dialogue, case study analysis of interview and annotation data details how social annotation enabled three group-level epistemic expressions delineating collaboration as intersubjective meaning-making and as an open educational practice. A summative discussion considers how the social life of documents encourages collaboration, why attention to epistemic expression is a productive means of articulating open learning, and how to extend the study of collaboration as an open educational practice.
Kalir, J., Morales, E., Fleerackers, A., & Alperin, J. (2020). “When I saw my peers annotating:” Student perceptions of social annotation for learning in multiple courses. Information and Learning Sciences, 121(3/4).

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Abstract: Purpose Social annotation (SA) is a genre of learning technology that enables the annotation of digital resources for information sharing, social interaction and knowledge production. This study aims to examine the perceived value of SA as contributing to learning in multiple undergraduate courses. Design/methodology/approach In total, 59 students in 3 upper-level undergraduate courses at a Canadian university participated in SA-enabled learning activities during the winter 2019 semester. A survey was administered to measure how SA contributed to students’ perceptions of learning and sense of community. Findings A majority of students reported that SA supported their learning despite differences in course subject, how SA was incorporated and encouraged and how widely SA was used during course activities. While findings of the perceived value of SA as contributing to the course community were mixed, students reported that peer annotations aided comprehension of course content, confirmation of ideas and engagement with diverse perspectives. Research limitations/implications Studies about the relationships among SA, learning and student perception should continue to engage learners from multiple courses and from multiple disciplines, with indicators of perception measured using reliable instrumentation. Practical implications Researchers and faculty should carefully consider how the technical, instructional and social aspects of SA may be used to enable course-specific, personal and peer-supported learning. Originality/value This study found a greater variance in how undergraduate students perceived SA as contributing to the course community. Most students also perceived their own and peer annotations as productively contributing to learning. This study offers a more complete view of social factors that affect how SA is perceived by undergraduate students.
Kalir, J., Cantrill, C., Dean, J., & Dillon, J.* (2020). Iterating the Marginal Syllabus: Social reading and annotation while social distancing. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 463-471.

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Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic exacerbated long-standing educational inequities associated with technology access, learner agency, and participation in online learning. How were preservice and inservice educators supported in their pursuit of interest-driven professional learning that critically examined the unfolding impact of these inequities? This article describes how the Marginal Syllabus project rapidly iterated three public, online, and equity-oriented social annotation activities for educators that included: Facilitating social reading sessions which combined synchronous social annotation with videoconferencing conversation; a collaborative partnership with the Speculative Education Colloquium to augment reading opportunities for shared dialogue; and supporting teacher education courses participating in social annotation activities under remote learning circumstances. The article details three recommendations for supporting educators’ technical and sociopolitical professional learning via social annotation, and notes directions for future research that can examine how annotation-powered conversation may productively inform more equitable pedagogy and student learning practices.
Kalir, J., & Garcia, A. (2019). Civic writing on digital walls. Journal of Literacy Research, 51(4), 420-443.

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Abstract: Civic writing has appeared on walls over centuries, across cultures, and in response to political concerns. This article advances a civic interrogation of how civic writing is publicly authored, read, and discussed as openly accessible and multimodal texts on digital walls. Drawing upon critical literacy perspectives, we examine how a repertoire of 10 civic writing practices associated with open web annotation (OWA) helped educators develop critical literacy. We introduce a social design experiment in which educators leveraged OWA to discuss educational equity across sociopolitical texts and contexts. We then describe a single case of OWA conversation among educators and use discourse analysis to examine shifting situated meanings and political expressions present in educators’ civic writing practices. We conclude by considering implications for theorizing the marginality of critical literacy, designing learning environments that foster educators’ civic writing, and facilitating learning opportunities that encourage educators’ civic writing across digital walls.
Kalir, J., & Dillon, J. (2019). Educators discussing ethics, equity, and literacy through collaborative annotation. In K. H. Turner (Ed.), The ethics of digital literacy: Developing knowledge and skills across grade levels. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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Abstract: This chapter describes an ongoing professional learning initiative that encourages educators’ ethical digital literacy practices. Specifically, this chapter concerns the design, facilitation, and study of a project that presumes educator learning about digital literacy should be interest-driven, openly networked, and oriented toward educational equity. Furthermore, for educators to learn about digital literacy, educators must also participate in and regularly practice digital literacy. And such practices should advance an ethical stance. This chapter is co-authored by organizers of the Marginal Syllabus, a public initiative that, since 2016, has convened and sustained online conversations with educators about equity in education through open and collaborative web annotation. In describing how the Marginal Syllabus encourages educators’ ethical digital literacy practices, this chapter addresses two inquiry questions. First, how might professional learning opportunities, like the Marginal Syllabus, orient educators toward ethical digital literacy practices? And second, how might such professional learning help educators to develop their own ethical stance toward digital literacy practices?
Kalir, J. (2019). Open web annotation as collaborative learning. First Monday, 24(6).

Abstract: This paper describes the use of open Web annotation (OWA) for collaborative learning among online communities. OWA is defined by the open standards, principles, and practices associated with the open Web. Specifically, this case study examines collaborative learning mediated by the OWA technology Hypothesis, a standards-compliant and open-source technology that situates collaboration in texts-as-contexts. Hypothesis OWA supports a repertoire of six collaborative learning practices: Affording multimodal expression, establishing connections across contexts, archiving activity, visualizing expertise and cognition, contributing to open educational resources, and fostering open educational practices. The use of Hypothesis OWA is then described in three online communities associated with scientific research and communication, educator professional development, and Web literacy and fact-checking. The article concludes by advancing three broad questions and related research agendas regarding how OWA as collaborative learning attends to linkages among formal and informal learning environments, the growth of both open educational resources and practices, and the use of open data as learning analytics.
Kalir, J., & Perez, F. (2019). The Marginal Syllabus: Educator learning and web annotation across sociopolitical texts and contexts. In A. Reid (Ed.), Marginalia in modern learning contexts (pp. 17-58). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

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Abstract: This case study examines educator learning as mediated by open web annotation among sociopolitical texts and contexts. The chapter introduces annotation practices and conceptualizes intertextuality to describe how open web annotation creates dialogic spaces which gather together people and texts, coordinates meaning-making, and encourages political agency. This perspective on texts-as-contexts is used to present and analyze educator participation in the Marginal Syllabus, a social design experiment that leverages open web annotation to foster conversation about educational equity. One conversation from the Marginal Syllabus is analyzed using mixed method approaches to data collection, analysis, and the presentation of findings. Learning analytics and discourse analysis detail how open web annotation mediated educator participation among sociopolitical texts and contexts of professional relevance. The chapter concludes by discussing open web annotation as a means of coordinating educator participation in public conversations about sociopolitical issues related to educational equity.
Perez, F., & Kalir, J. H. (2019). Open web annotation as connected conversation in CSCL. In J. H. Kalir (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2018 Connected Learning Summit (Vol. 1; pp. 185-195). Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press.

Abstract: Research has yet to explore how the social and technical affordances of open web annotation (OWA) can mediate connections between educators in service of their professional learning. This study examined educator participation in the Marginal Syllabus, a computer supported collaborative learning environment that encouraged connected conversation via OWA. Multiple quantitative methods, including text sentiment analysis and social network analysis, were used to discern key discursive characteristics among the nine conversations of the 2016-17 Marginal Syllabus (1,163 annotations authored by 67 participating educators). Key discursive characteristics of educators’ connected conversations include: (a) generally positive sentiment; (b) educators who annotated most prolifically also authored the greatest percentage of annotations with neutral sentiment; and (c) conversations of at least four annotations tended to demonstrate a greater percentage of negative sentiment. The sentiment trends and study limitations are addressed in the final discussion.
Kalir, J. (2018). Equity-oriented design in open education. International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, 35(5), 357-367.

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Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe the equity-oriented design of a publicly accessible and openly networked computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) initiative that has supported educator discussion about equity topics; to identify design principles for equity-oriented design in open education; and to propose a model for the design of open learning initiatives that are mutually committed to educational equity and educational openness. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws from design-based research methodology, specifically design narrative and the worked example. The paper is one response to the need for more “designerly work” in the learning sciences, generally, and more specifically in domains such as CSCL. Findings Four design principles are identified that informed the equity-oriented creation and iteration of the Marginal Syllabus, an open CSCL initiative: leveraging the open web, fostering multi-stakeholder partnerships, working with open content and engaging professional learning as an open practice. This paper also advances the open palimpsests model for equity-oriented design in open education. The model integrates design principles to assist CSCL and open education designers and researchers in creating or iterating projects to be more equity-oriented learning opportunities. Originality/value This paper’s design narrative identifies Marginal Syllabus design principles and advances the open palimpsests model for equity-oriented design in open education. The design narrative demonstrates how critical perspectives on the relationship between equity and digital technology can encourage collaboration among diverse project stakeholders, attune to the dynamics of power and agency and respond to the worldly needs of partners and participants.
Kalir, J., & Dean, J. (2018). Web annotation as conversation and interruption. Journal of Media Practice, 19(1), 18-29.

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Abstract: This article showcases both the conventional and disruptive features of web annotation as media practice. To do so, we orchestrated a series of thematic exchanges about media practice, specifically those associated with openness and politics. We then publicly invited responses to our initial manuscript via the online web annotation platform The two thematic conversations inspired an ensemble of public contributors to join us in ongoing discussion for over a month, layering atop our source text over 100 original web annotations, creating a laminated and multi-authored document. Following this shared activity, we reflected upon our experience and the generated content, and authored a complementary synthesis that explores the tenor and tensions of web annotation as a disruptive media practice, as well as web annotation as performative publishing. Alongside public contributors, we worked a cyclical dialectic of process and product, discussing web annotation as disruptive media practice by publicly practicing web annotation as an act of co-created disruption. It is our hope that this experiment-turned-article, part collaboratively authored dialogue and part post-hoc synthesis, models and begins to theorize new and disruptive media practices for research design, peer review, and scholarly communication.
Hollett, T., & Kalir. J. (2017). Mapping playgrids for learning across space, time, and scale. TechTrends, 61(3), 236-245.

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Abstract: In this article, we analyze the production of learner-generated playgrids. Playgrids are produced when learners knit together social media tools to participate across settings and scales, accomplish their goals, pursue interests, and make their learning more enjoyable and personally meaningful. Through case study methodology we examine how two platforms - Slack and Hypothesis - enabled learners to curate and participate among their own digital resources and pathways for learning. We contend that both theoretical and pedagogical development is necessary to support adult learners as they curate tools and pathways based upon their contingent needs and goals, and that the concept of playgrids does so by usefully connecting less formal social media practice with more formal professional learning across various settings and scales. In the end, we demonstrate the importance of honoring learners’ desire to connect their completion of formal course activities with their less formal social media practices; both sets of practices need not be in conflict and may be complementary.

My research about technology facilitating knowledge construction and professional learning

Rouleau, K., & Kalir, J. (2020). Opening educators’ social learning ecologies: Conceptualizing professional learning across public and private boundaries. In D. Conrad & P. Prinsloo (Eds.), Open(ing) education: Theory and practice (pp. 169-197). Boston, MA: Brill USA.

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Abstract: This book chapter presents key concepts related to educators’ open learning across settings, offers a theoretical framework related to educators’ social learning ecologies, and suggests how educators might better access and leverage professionally-relevant learning ecologies across professional and personal boundaries.
Taylor, K., Silvis, D., Kalir, J., Cramer, C., & Negron, A. (2019). Supporting public-facing education for youth: Spreading (not scaling) ways to learn data science with mobile and geospatial technologies. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 19(3).

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Abstract: A project called Mobile City Science (MCS), a partnership between the University of Washington, New York Hall of Science, the Digital Youth Network, and two high schools, leverages young people’s proclivity for on-the-move digital engagement to re-place and mobilize learning through public, community settings that youth identify as being relevant to their daily lives. At its most fundamental level, MCS teaches and engages young people in new forms of data science, especially around collecting and interpreting spatial, real-time, and dynamic data. This digital STEAM curriculum has more ambitious objectives. Ultimately, the research team hopes this work disrupts an absence of youth input in neighborhood and community development processes, using the power of spatial data and visualizations that young people create about their communities as a ticket for entry into ongoing policy and planning conversations. As youth will be the ones making critical decisions about these same communities in due time, it is prudent to apprentice them into valued forms of civic participation. Moreover, as long as youth ideas go unheard, leaders and adult community stakeholders have an incomplete picture — and are missing potentially transformative solutions — regarding current issues. This example of a digital STEAM curriculum for youth to engage in data science with mobile technologies provides ideas for teachers to make instruction more public-facing.
Silvis, D., Kalir, J., & Taylor, K. (2019). Learning and researching across places in Mobile City Science. In A. Zhang & D. Cristol (Eds.), Handbook of mobile teaching and learning (2nd Ed.; pp. 289-311). Springer Singapore.

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Abstract: This chapter explores a relationship between learning across places and researching across places. Location-aware devices play an important role in research on teaching and learning as more learning settings incorporate mobile technologies. However, collecting and managing the data produced by these technologies takes coordination, particularly when learning is happening at the scale of the neighborhood and when research sites are geographically distributed. This chapter examines the use of mobile and geolocative technologies in research on teaching and learning through a description of a novel approach called Mobile City Science (MCS). MCS is a project that brings together university-based researchers and youth-serving organizations (i.e., a science museum, after-school programs, and schools) in three US cities to support young people in developing locative literacies (Taylor 2017) through their study of local issues. By collecting, analyzing, and developing arguments with spatial data and mobile technologies, MCS participants learned what is involved in contributing to change processes at the city or neighborhood scale. These same data served to inform researchers about learning processes related to new spatial literacies, even when researchers and collaborators were located in geographically separate places. This chapter identifies a set of key design practices for studying and implementing MCS and then applies these to commonplace notions of smart and connected cities.
Kalir, J. (2018). Bit, block, sketch, build: Bricolage and educator learning. Hybrid Pedagogy.

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Abstract: This conceptual essay suggests critical and creative approaches to educator professional learning be informed by productive ignorance, open practices, multi-stakeholder partnerships, and boundary-crossing. In response to the coronavirus pandemic, this piece was included in Hybrid Pedagogy’s curated set of “immediately useful” articles about online learning and critical digital pedagogy.
Kalir, J., Fahy, M., Kupperman, J., Schiff, F., & Stanzler, J. (2017). Playful partnerships for game-based learning in international contexts. In I. Lubin (Ed.), ICT-supported innovations in small countries and developing regions: Perspectives and recommendations for international education (pp. 141-168). New York, NY: Springer.

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Abstract: This book chapter examines the how the Interactive Communications & Simulations group and the Institute for Innovation in Education have created technology-rich projects that advance playful, multistakeholder partnerships for game-based learning in international contexts. We analyze a case of game-based learning in Oman, and describe different ways in which a playful multistakeholder partnership can be enacted in a cross-cultural setting.
Kalir, J. (2016). Preservice teacher mobile investigation and interpretation of everyday mathematics across settings. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 24(4), 415-442.

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Abstract: This study reports upon design-based research that enacted mobile mathematics learning for preservice teachers across classroom, community, and online settings. The integration of mobile learning within mathematics teacher education is understudied, and it is necessary to better understand mobile technology affordances when locating disciplinary inquiry across settings. A curriculum module was designed to support preservice teachers’ participation in two mathematics education and mobile learning repertoires: a) mobile investigation of disciplinary concepts situated in community locations and circumstances, and b) mobile interpretation of connections between school and everyday mathematics. This exploratory case study analyzes three module iterations and identifies the qualities of preservice teachers’ cross-setting disciplinary connections. Reported mobile learning outcomes include connections preservice teachers produced among mathematics concepts, mathematical actions, and material objects, and also connections produced between school mathematics and everyday circumstances. Findings indicate preservice teachers established disciplinary connections when participating in commercial and civic activities relevant to their daily lives. Yet other mathematics concepts and practices were either seldom investigated, only vaguely described, or not representative of K-12 students’ interests and cultures. Design recommendations and implications are suggested for subsequent attempts at situating preservice teacher learning outside of the mathematics teacher education classroom and across multiple settings through mobile learning.
Kalir, J.  (2016). Good game: On the limitations of puzzles and possibilities for gameful learning. In C. Williams-Pierce (Ed.), Teacher pioneers: Visions from the edge of the map (pp. 359-371). Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press.

Abstract: In the book's conclusion, I examine 18 chapters of Teacher Pioneers: Visions From the Edge of the Map as a project with a challenging and necessary premise: Educators can creatively design games and usefully research game-based learning, and more educator-inspired and gameful approaches to teaching and learning can and should transform schooling. My analysis suggests the book advances a conception of gameful learning that describes educators as committed to playfulness, design, and agency within game-based teaching and learning.
Saunders, T., & Kalir, J. (2016). From improvisational puzzle to interest-driven inquiry.  In C. Williams-Pierce (Ed.), Teacher pioneers: Visions from the edge of the map (pp. 263-289). Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press.

Abstract: The book chapter describes the design and implementation of game-based learning in a fourth-grade science classroom.
Holden, J. (2016). Mobile inquiry-as-play in mathematics teacher education. On the Horizon, 24(1), 71-81.

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Abstract: This study aims to describe the feasibility of designing and fostering pre-service teacher inquiry at the intersection of community and disciplinary engagement. Mapping My Math (MMM), a game-based and mobile learning activity, guided pre-service teachers in playfully exploring mathematics featured in the everyday activities of people and places and creatively representing this inquiry with digital media. This study draws from design-based research that examined the role of place, digital media and mobility in mathematics teacher education. Design narrative methods describe how MMM was created, implemented and refined to support disciplinary inquiry across settings given the evolution of tools, activities and practices. The study and design narrative address the following question: How can game-based and mobile learning be designed to support pre-service teachers’ disciplinary inquiry of everyday mathematics? Findings shared in this study’s design narrative attend to the quality of pre-service teachers’ inquiry-as-play, or expressive mobility situated amonglearners’ social and material relations, disciplinary concepts and the built environment. Implications from this study concern the role of mobile learning in mathematics teacher education to connect school, community and online settings; the potential of gameful design to impact pre-service teacher learning across settings; and the importance of fostering disciplinary inquiry whereby pre-service teachers can “navigate” their own learning. Game-based and mobile learning designs, like MMM, can create the conditions for cross-setting mobility as generative of inquiry-as-play in mathematics teacher education. MMM encouraged pre-service teachers to playfully leverage disciplinary practices that shaped new relationships with mathematics, their city and the mathematics of place and community.
Holden, J., Poggione, P., & Kupperman, J. (2016). Playing (with) POST Cards. On the Horizon, 24(3), 257-267.

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Abstract: This article illustrates through word, image and design the back-and-forth exchange characteristic of Project Oriented Semantic Trading (POST) Cards, a game-based professional learning ritual relevant to educators’ problems of practice. In describing the iterative designs and features of POST Cards, this article intentionally depicts alternative means of narrative and scholarship via imaginative, playful and visual (re)presentation. Both POST Cards and this inquiry use a design-based process driven by theory about play, intended to improve education practice, and iteratively co-created with participants. As an annotated and dialogical worked example, this representation of game play moves beyond the monolithic medium of printed text. With the intention to provoke discussion about the content and configuration of inquiry, this article traces the literal and figurative tradeoffs associated with the development and play of POST Cards. In surveying the design and enactment of POST Cards across two iterations, and a related Quote Cards mutation, three design principles are relevant to fostering greater playfulness in higher education: embrace the inevitability of tradeoffs, invite players to co-create new features and iterations, and create conditions whereby everyday rituals and social practices are transformed into improvisational and discursive play. As an annotated narrative constructed in the form and spirit of POST Cards, this inquiry is notable for presenting an experimental form of multimodal literacy and also for revealing how higher education settings and practices may be designed as playgrounds upon which to render visionary, risky and expressive approaches to game-based collaboration and creative scholarship.
Holden, J., Kupperman, J., Dorfman, A., Saunders, T., Pratt, A., & MacKay, P. (2014). Gameful learning as a way of being. International Journal of Learning Technology, 9(2), 181-201.

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Abstract: As a variation on game-based learning, we propose the concept of “gameful learning” as a framework that encourages improvisation, playfulness, and social interaction, and which takes into account the unique contingencies of individual people and specific content. We describe gameful learning in terms of three elements: attitude, identity, and ignorance. Three cases of gameful learning are examined across diverse learning environments: a fourth grade science class studying matter, a secondary world history class studying the Middle Ages, and an educational technology graduate program. Cross-case analysis reveals how gameful learning elements relate to attitudes of agency and social necessity, becoming a game designer, and embracing ignorance for learning.
Holden, J., & Williams, C. (2014). How can teachers use videogames to teach their students mathematics? National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Briefs.

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Abstract: Imagine a veteran mathematics educator eager to refine her practice. Alternatively, what of the first-year teacher confident in her ability to adapt new technologies to communicate, problem-solve, and share information. How might either identify what makes video games and gameplay effective in a mathematics classroom? What are the advantages of game-based learning in contrast to more traditional instructional strategies, and can pitfalls be avoided, successes recognized, and challenges mitigated?
Hora, M., & Holden, J. (2013). Exploring the role of instructional technology in course   planning and classroom teaching: Implications for pedagogical reform. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 25(2), 68-92.

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Abstract: Instructional technology plays a key role in many teaching reform efforts at the postsecondary level, yet evidence suggests that faculty adopt these technology-based innovations in a slow and inconsistent fashion. A key to improving these efforts is to understand local practice and use these insights to design more locally attuned interventions. This exploratory study draws on systems-of-practice theory from distributed cognition research to provide a framework for producing comprehensive accounts of technology use. This account includes three components: (a) awareness of the local resource base for instructional technology, (b) decision-making processes regarding tool use, and (c) actual classroom use of technology. Interviews and classroom observations of 40 faculty in math, physics, and biology departments at three research universities in the U.S. were analyzed using thematic and causal network analysis. Results indicate that faculty have both a shared and discipline-specific resource base for instructional technology. The adoption, adaptation, or rejection of technology-based innovations is influenced by the alignment among pre-existing beliefs and goals, prior experiences, perceived affordances of particular tools, and cultural conventions of the disciplines. Classroom use of technology varied across disciplinary groups, with mathematicians and biologists exhibiting relatively limited repertoires of tool use while physicists used a larger variety of tools. Additionally, different tools were associated with different teaching methods and types of student cognitive engagement. Policymakers and instructional designers can use these insights to inform the design and implementation of technology-based initiatives, especially in ensuring that innovations resonate with existing belief systems and practices.
Mathews, J., & Holden, J. (2012). Place-based design education: A pedagogy for classroom and community-based civic participation. In S. Dikkers, J. Martin, & B. Coulter (Eds.), Mobile media learning: Amazing uses of mobile devices for teaching and learning (pp. 131-148). Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press.

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Abstract: Over the past three years we have partnered with a group of teachers, educational researchers, and community members to collaboratively teach a place– based high school course called People, Places, and Stories (PPS). One of the key goals of PPS is to engage students in identifying and researching cultural and ecological themes and issues in their local community, then designing media and events (e.g., documentaries, photo exhibits, games, community events, and digital stories) to share their findings and personal perspectives on these issues. In recent implementations of PPS, mobile technologies have emerged as key tools for supporting students’ fieldwork and shaping the media products and experiences they design throughout the class.
Siebenthal Adams, S., & Holden, J. (2011). Games, ethics, and engagement: Potential consequences of game design and gameplay. In K. Schrier & D. Gibson (Eds.), Designing games for ethics: Models, techniques and frameworks (pp. 291-311). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

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Abstract: This chapter examines ethical ambiguities confronted by the design and play of serious games focused on civic engagement. Our findings derive from our examination of two educational simulation games that focus on contemporary issues related to social and political conflict. We believe game simulations are complex in nature and offer particularly rich environments for cognitive learning. Within the following chapter we examine the relationship between games and learning, specific approaches to game design, and the ability of games to encourage civic engagement. While we found that game participants gained knowledge of curricular content and practiced democratic skills during their experiences with the online simulations, there also occurred unintended consequences. In turn, we believe it is critical to analyze deeper ethical ambiguities related to the consequences of civic-minded game design and gameplay and support research efforts to further recognize and expand upon the development and research of serious games involving civic-minded educational online simulations.

Please note that I typically publish under my legal name Jeremiah (not Remi), and that I changed my surname to Kalir from Holden in the fall of 2016.